Classification of Post-Graduate Courses into Groups

Group 1: General materials science

Bonding, the stability of ionic crystals, Pauling’s rule, the Madelung constant. Ceramic crystal structure: Rock Salt, Wurtzite, Zinc-Blende, Fluorite, Antifluorite, Rutile, Perovskite, Spinels, covalent ceramics, silicon nitride, carbide, oxynitride, crystalline silicates glass structure. Elasticity, Strength and Griffith theory, brittle and ductile fracture behavior, fracture toughness, creep and fatigue, Weibull parameters. Thermal properties: thermal stresses and fracture. Electrical behavior: electronic conductivity, ionic conductivity, electrical insulation, semi-conductivity, superconductivity, dielectric properties, polarization, dielectric constants, dielectric loss, dielectric strengths, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, ferroelectricity. Magnetic behavior: Magnetism, magnetic exchange mechanisms, soft and hard ferrite and microwave ferrite. Optical behavior: absorption and transparency, color, phosphorescence, ligand field and crystal field theory, colors, optical shields and optical fiber communication, laser, index of refraction, electro-optic behavior. Recent advances in this area.
Crystal imperfections: Frenkel and Schottky disorder, nonstoichiometric defects, defects equilibria and Kroger-Vink diagrams, linear defects and planar defects. Condensed phase rule and single component system: Silica, Zirconia and Carbon. Two component systems: Free energy-composition diagrams, phase stability, solid solution, isothermal reactions, congruently and incongruently melting compounds. Ternary systems: Representation of composition on triangle, crystallization paths, solid models, isothermal section, base projection method, isoplethal section, ternary systems with binary and ternary isothermal reactions, congruently and incongruently melting compounds. Description and application of commercially important binary and ternary ceramic systems based on SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3, CaO, MgO, ZrO 2 , BaO and TiO 2 .
Thermal analysis methods: DTA, TGA, DSC and Dilatometry, instrumentation and analysis of data. Factors affecting the phase transformations: particle size, packing, heating rate, buoyancy effect. Spectrometric method: UV- visible, IR, FTIR and Raman-spectroscopy, instrumentation and analysis of data. X-ray Diffractometry: X-ray generation, principles of x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffraction under ideal and non ideal conditions, scattering and structure factor. X-ray data files and its analysis, indexing of crystal type. Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy: basic principle, geometrical optics, construction, working principle and use of fluorescence spectrometers in materials analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and on-line analysis of ceramic materials. Scanning electron microscopy: optics, principles and performance of an SEM, image interpretation, crystallographic information, analytical microscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Probe Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy. Magnetic characterization of ceramic magnets.

GROUP 2: Glass Science and Engineering

Mineralogical characteristics of sand and glass making sand. Sand for colorless glass: coloring agents, chemical composition of sand for making different glasses, terminology and class interval of sand, different techniques of size analysis. Glass sand deposits of Bangladesh. Sand beneficiation processes: sampling; dry and wet, physical treatments; washing, sieve analysis, attrition, magnetic separation, bromoform separation, chemical treatments; Adam’s process, Sherlock’s process, hydrochloric acid process, sodium carbonate process, sodium hydroxide process, dithionite process, sulphite process, sodium hydroxide process, froth floatation. Mineralogical analysis: grain slide petrography, thin section petrography, semi–quantitative XRD analysis. Chemical analysis: LOI, preparation of Fe and Cr standard solutions, determination of total iron oxide, chromium oxide content, calcium, magnesium, sodium, aluminium and potassium oxides.
Glassy state and transitions in glass, working range and setting property of glass, fundamentals of glass formation, structure of glass. Physical and optical properties of glass. Calculation of properties of glasses: thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, density and specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity-temperature curves. Structure-property correlations of glasses. Phase equilibrium diagram of glasses, reactions leading to glass formation, importance of transition metal ions in glass. Glass composition and batch formulation, design and development. Individual raw materials and their functions in glass. Cullet and its role. Major classification of glass by composition and applications.
Glass preparation process. Types of currents in glass, hot spots and foam lines, temperature gradients in glass, flame control. Basic physical laws governing combustion, decolorizing of glass, solubility of gases in glass. Phenomena of re-boiling in industrial glass manufacture. Glass feeding and forming: forming systems, mold technology, annealing lehr for stress release. Major defects in commercial glasses: cords, stones, cold glass, devitrite, bubbles and seeds and their identification by petrological microscope, their possible remedies. Annealing and tempering of glasses. Quality control of glasses. ETP, dust control, emission control and environmental impacts.
Types of furnaces, furnace design parameters. Interpretation of simulated modeling results. Heat losses and heat balance of a furnace, furnace combustion systems and control, furnace cooling system. Furnace pressure and draft, chimney design. Temperature gradients in glass bath, glass currents and their behavior. Ventilation and dust control, emergency controls, flame and temperature control. Furnace binding steels and supports, correct refractories selection and their use, heat recovery systems and their evaluation, waste gas analysis and its input, heating-up of furnace, draining of furnace, special equipments for glass furnaces. Fundamentals of fuel and fuel economics, repairs of glass furnaces, glass furnace control system. Batch raw materials handling and preparation engineering for furnaces.
Traditional optical glasses: composition and fabrication. Optical properties: refractive index, reflection, scattering, absorption- electronic, vibrational, infrared and Raman scattering. Light scattering in glass: introduction, Rayleigh and Mie scattering, metal colloids and photo – elastic properties. Photosensitive glasses: photochromic glasses, Bragg gratings, photoinduced effects in chalcogenide glasses, Gradient Index Glasses (GRIN). Optical fibers: fabrication, types of fibers, modes and loss, fiber dispersion, optical amplification in fiber optic systems and photonic crystal fibers, integrated optics. Photochromic and photosensitive glasses. Acousto–optic and magneto–optic glasses. Rare earth doped glasses. Laser glasses. Non–linear optical (NLO) glasses, semiconductor–doped nano–glasses, metal–doped nano–glasses, NLO properties of metal–doped glasses.
SPECIAL GLASSES - ( 3 credits )
Non conventional processing of glasses: Sol–Gel method, chemical vapor deposition method. Acid–base concept in glass. Principle and manufacturing of radiation shielding and bullet proof glass, heat absorbing glass, solder glass, chalcogenide and halide glass, TV picture tube, glass fibre and glass for optical fibre its application. Low durability glass for agricultural purpose. Glass filters. Fixation of nuclear wastes in glass. Smart window glasses and their applications. Solarized glass. Metallic glasses and their applications. Recent developments in this area.

GROUP 3: Traditional Ceramics

Classification, beneficiation, importance, use and limitations of natural ceramic raw materials: Bauxite, Limestone, Chromite, Magnesite, Dolomite, Fluorite, Gypsum, Haematite, Kaolinite, Fireclay, Ball clay, Feldspars, Quartz, Quartzite, Sillimanite, Talc, Zircon, Mica, Silica sand. Classification, processing, application and limitations of synthetic ceramic raw materials: Calcined Alumina, Fused Alumina, Sea-water Magnesia, Titania, Magnesio-Aluminate Spinel, Fused Silica. Effect of heat on different raw materials with reference to phase transformation, thermal expansion, melting, decomposition behavior, compound formation, stabilization.
Powder production: conventional powder production techniques, chemical methods, vapour phase reactions, freeze drying, spray drying and sol-gel processing of ceramic powders. Colloidal processing: types of colloids, electrostatic and polymeric stabilization of colloids, rheology of colloidal suspensions. Clay-water system, thixotropy, slip casting and tape casting. Powder consolidation and forming of ceramics: additives and their selection in the forming processes, extrusion, dry and semi-dry pressing, isostatic pressing, hot pressing. Near net-shape forming process: Injection moulding, gel casting. Sintering: driving force for sintering, solid and liquid phase sintering, sintering process variables, sintering mechanisms and kinetics. Phase transformation: nucleation and growth, spinodal decomposition and its mechanism. Problems of sintering. kinetics of heterogeneous reactions: reactions between solids, calcination and dehydration reactions, non-isothermal process kinetics. Microwave sintering.
Manufacture, properties and uses of table wares, sanitary wares, art wares, dental porcelains, bone-china, parian, electrical porcelains, chemical stone wares, chemical porcelains, refractory porcelains. Types of insulator bodies, low tension products, high voltage and high-frequency insulators, low loss insulators, cordierite ceramics, steatite ceramics, honeycomb ceramics and other new ceramic materials. Details of glazes, their properties and uses: Lead, leadless, opaque, transparent, crystalline, matt and colored glazes. Decoration in glaze, under glaze and on glaze, computerized decoration. Fast firing of glaze decoration. Instrumentation in ceramic processing. Microstructure and its effects on the properties.
Refractory materials: requirements, properties and classification of refractories. Material processing, manufacturing processes, process quality control with phase diagrams. Industrial refractories: refractory bricks, fused cast refractories, insulating refractories, IFB and castables, refractory ceramic fibers. Refractory application: ferrous and non-ferrous industries, heat treating and forging industries, refining and petrochemical industries, ceramic and glass industries, combustors, incinerators, boilers. Refractory properties: re-heat shrinkage, spalling resistance, slag resistance, reaction between refractories and glasses, heat transmission behavior of refractories in different environments, corrosion and failure of refractories. Refractory tests: fusion point in relation to equilibrium diagram, PCE Test, HMOR, torsional creep tests. Fractors affecting the performance of refractories, refractory maintenance and repair. Refractory economics.
Introduction to hydraulic materials. Classification of cement, design and control of cement compositions, particle size distribution in raw materials, solid state reactions, sintering and clinkering. Description of rotary kiln and shaft kiln. Construction and manufacturing of Portland cement clinker and the method of investigation. Theories and mechanism of cement setting and hardening: Principles and techniques of high temperature phase analysis in clinker formation, mechanism of phase formation, formation of various mineralogical products, effects of impurities and role of minor components. Crystal structure of anhydrous and hydrated compounds. High temperature cement and refractory castables, hydrated calcium silicate products. Polymer cement interactions, polymer cement concrete, polymer impregnated concrete, micro-defect-free (MDF) products, fibre reinforced concrete and protective coatings. Pollution control in cement industries.
Introduction of building materials. Raw materials of bricks and tiles, raw materials processing, assessment and management. Production of bricks and tiles: preparation of clay, shaping, drying, coloring, firing, testing. Glazed tiles: interior, exterior, pavement, mosaic etc. Materials and product analyses: qualitative, quantitative, thermal analysis, plasticity index, particle size distribution. Characteristics of carbonized/reduction bricks and tiles, facing bricks, facing tiles, glazed roofing tiles, glazed bricks, mosaic salt glazed pipes, Pozzolano bricks, Plaster of Paris (POP) ceiling, lime mortars. Basic principles of all steps in the manufacture of heavy clay products, clay roofing tiles, bricks-hollow, solid floor tiles, wall tiles. Physical and thermal properties of different types of brick and tiles. Effect of weather on bricks and tiles. Testing of finished products.
Pollution and waste generation in ceramic and related industries. Kiln and stack emissions, pollution from service units like air compressor, laboratories, gas producers, storage facilities, waste water treatment plant. Environmental and health impacts of pollutants and solid wastes. Bangladesh environmental laws and WHO’s norms. Pollution reduction measures in ceramic industries: air, sound, solid waste, water. Nature and type of industrial waste useful for ceramic industries. Use of industrial wastes in ceramic industries. Utilization of fly ash, rice husk, Blast Furnace slag in the production of traditional and advanced ceramics. Study of clay water system as an effective absorbent of toxic pollutant. Recycling of industrial waste in ceramic and allied industries. Fluorine contamination in alumina industry and the disposal and recovery of refractory materials. Application of ceramics for water and air purification. Glass and ceramics in nuclear waste management.

GROUP 4: Electroceramics

Dielectric pheomena: basic polarization mechanisms, characteristics of dipolar polarization, temperature and frequency dependence of polarization. Dielectric parameters: dielectric strength, dielectric loss, dielectric constant, relation between dielectric constant and polarization, structural transformation of dielectric ceramics, linear and non-linear dielectrics. Structural origin of ferroelectrics: ferroelectric domains, effect of domain and grain size on dielectric properties, variation of dielectric characteristics with composition and dopants, crystal symmetry in ferroelectric materials. Piezo and pyroelectric phenomena. Application of dielectric ceramics: PLZT systems and their characteristics, barium titanate based ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric transducers and actuators. Alternative to lead based PLZT: KNN, sintering problem of KNN and its solution. Recent advances in this area.
MAGNETIC CERAMICS - ( 3 credits )
Introduction to magnetic ceramics. Crystal structures of magnetic ceramics: spinel structure, cation distribution, spinel solid solutions, rare earth garnet and its solid solutions, hexagonal ferrites. Preparation of magnetic ceramics: powder metallurgy technique, ferrite nano-powder synthesis, green body forming, pre-sintering and sintering. Preparation of permanent magnet, ferrite thin film and single crystals. Magnetic properties of ferrites: magnetic moments, magnetic order, exchange interaction, molecular-field theory, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetostriction, domains and domain walls, magnetization process and hysteresis. Soft ferrites and hard ferrites. AC properties of ferrites: Magnetic and core losses, dispersion, ferromagnetic resonance, disaccommodation. Application of ferrites: permanent magnet devices, linear response and power application, ferrite for EMI suppression, ferrite for entertainment application; radio and TV, magnetic recording and other applications. Recent advances in this area.
PHOTONIC CERAMICS - ( 3 credits )
Introduction: radiation, refraction, scattering, absorption. Ligand Field Theory: ions in ligand fields, intraionic absorption and ligand field theory. Optical filters: polarization, ionic polarizability. Electro-optical ceramics: interband theory, birefringence, optical principal axis, optical cavity, optical indicatrix, electric field dependence of index of refraction, Pockels effect, Kerr effect, Faraday effect, memory effect, parametric amplification and oscillation, florescence. Materials for electro-optic applications: PLZT system, PLZT films, light emitting diode (LED), photodiodes, photoconductive semiconductors, nonlinear optics. Crystalline Lasers: characteristics of three and four level lasers, laser materials. Optical communication: optical waveguide characteristics, graded-index waveguides, planar waveguides, material systems and fiber properties. Recent advances in this area.
Theory of ceramic conduction: metal like ceramic conductors, ionic conduction in ceramics, crystal structure and ionic conduction, ceramic semiconductor, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, anion ceramic conductor, ZnO based semiconductor. Ceramic varistor and thermistor: Bismuth, Vanadium, Praseodymium oxide based ZnO varistor. Ceramic Fast ion conductor: Beta Alumina, cubic stabilized Zirconia, conduction in Li-ion battery. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC): material and their properties, electrochemical kinetics of SOFC, applications of SOFC. Superconductivity: history of superconductivity, BCS theory of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson effect, type I and type II superconductors, high temperature ceramic superconductor, phase diagrams and doping in superconductor, composition and synthesis of HTC superconductor, application of ceramic superconductors.
Introduction: history, thermodynamics and electrochemical kinetics, fuel cell components and their impact on performance. Fuel cell systems: proton exchange membrane fuel cell, direct methanol fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell, polymer electrolyte fuel cell, solid oxide fuel cell. Fundaments of electrical and ionic conductivity. Cell component: material system, synthesis, properties, fabrication and applications. Special materials: material system, synthesis, properties, fabrication and applications. Stack design and fabrication techniques. Electrode polarization fundamentals, polarization kinetics. Testing and characterization of fuel cells and its components. Fuel processing and reforming of fuel. Batteries: battery parameters, fundamental aspects of battery system. Battery component: material system, synthesis, properties, fabrication and applications. Stack design and fabrication techniques. Testing and characterization of batteries and its components. Recent developments in this area.

GROUP 5: Smart Ceramic Technology

Common ceramic structures: corundum, illemenite, rutile, covalent ceramics, silicon nitride, carbide, oxynitride, crystalline silicates. General properties of engineering ceramics: elasticity, strength; Griffith theory, brittle and ductile fracture behavior and fracture toughness, creep and fatigue, Weibull parameters. Thermal properties: thermal conductivity and expansion, thermal stresses and fracture. Toughening of ceramics: various toughening mechanisms, self- reinforced ceramics, transformation-toughened ceramics, particulate-reinforced ceramics, whisker-reinforced ceramics, fiber-reinforced ceramics. Ceramic cutting tools: materials, fabrication, physical and mechanical properties, cutting performance. Ceramic bearings and porous ceramics for filtration: materials, characteristics, mechanical properties, fabrication and application. Application of ceramics in heat engines, wear and corrosion resistant applications in seals, valves, pumps, bearings, thread guides and ceramics in paper making. Recent advances in this area.
Introduction to solid-state sensors and actuators, scaling properties/issues, categories of sensors and actuators. Basic mechanisms of transduction, input/output characteristics, accuracy, repeatability, sensitivity analysis, hysteresis, nonlinearity, saturation, frequency response, dynamic characteristics, calibration, resolution, excitation, impedance. Photodiodes, phototransistors and photoresistors based sensors. Photomultipliers, infrared sensors, CCD sensors and detectors, thermoresistive sensors, thermoelectric sensors, Hall effect sensors, Magnetoresistive sensors, Magnetostrictive sensors and actuators, Magnetometers, Bolometers. Accelerometers, force sensors, pressure sensors, gyroscopes. Ultrasonic sensors, piezoelectric actuators, piezoelectric resonators, hydrophones. Electrochemical, Thermo-chemical, Gas, pH, Humidity, moisture and Optical chemical sensors. Molecule-based biosensors, cell-based biosensors. MEMs sensors and actuators. Smart sensors, ASIC based sensors, optical transducers, thermal transducers, magnetic transducers, RF transducers. Future trends in development and application of ceramic sensors and actuators.
Fibrous monolithic ceramics: Processing, structures and mechanical properties. Whisker-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics: Fabrication, properties and applications. Particulate composites: Powder processing and microstructural development, toughening, room temperature and high temperature strength. Functionally graded ceramic composites: Layered graded materials (LGM), infiltration kineties and characteristics, processing of LGM, characteristics and properties of Alumina-matrix LGMs. Fabrication and properties of micro-nano and nano-nano type ceramic composites. Fabrication and properties of Carbon nanotube(CNT) ceramic composites. SIALON: Toughening and strengthening of sialon, sialon composites. Mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites, microstructural analysis. Recent development in this area.

GROUP 6: Nano and Bioceramics

Introduction to micro and nanofabrication. Nucleation and growth: capillarity theory, atomistic and kinetic models of nucleation. Basic modes of ceramic thin film growth, stages of film growth and mechanisms, amorphous thin films. Lithography: fundamentals of lithography, key parameters in lithography, common lithography techniques, X-ray lithography, charged particle beam lithography, nanolithography. Physical vapor deposition (PVD): thermal evaporation, sputtering. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD): reaction mechanisms, energy sources for CVD process, common CVD techniques. Epitaxy: liquid, solid and vapor phase epitaxy, selective epitaxy, epilayer thickness control, Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Doping techniques: incorporation by diffusion, ion implantation. Sol-gel technique: preparation of sol, gel, organic substances for sol-gel reactions, factors effecting sol-gel processing. Micromachining: wet bulk micromachining, surface micromachining, concept of LIGA. Processing-microstructure-property-performance relationships in the context of applications in ICs, MEMS and optoelectronics. Recent advances in this area.
NANOCERAMICS - ( 3 credits )
Introduction to nanomaterials. Nanoscience and Nonotechnology: significance of nanoscale, emergence and challenges of nanomaterials, 1-2-3 dimensional nanostructured materials, synthesis of nanomaterials, stabilization against agglomeration, nanoparticle synthesis through homogenous and heterogenous nucleation, synthesis of nano-wire, nano-rod and thin films. Special nanomaterials: carbon nano-tubes, fulerens, graphene, microporous materials, core-shell structures and nanocompsites. Electro-mechanical properties of nano-structured materials. Nanostructured materials characterization. Supermolecular structures of nanomaterials. Superplasticity of nanostructured materials, structural and electron transport properties of nanoparticles. Applications of nanomaterials: molecular electronics, nano-electronics, photochemical cells, photonics, quantum wire devices, transparent and diamond like coatings, water purification and filtration, medical and diagnostic. Hazardous effects and ethical aspects of nanomaterials.
BIOCERAMICS - ( 3 credits )
Definition and scope of bio-materials. Structure-property relationship of biological materials: protenis, polysaccharides, hard tissue cells, bone, teeth and connective tissues. Functional behaviour of bio-materials. Tissue response to implants (bio-compatibility, wound healing process), body response to implants, blood compatibility. Use of bio-ceramic materials for medical applications and cancer treatment. Alumina and zirconia in surgical implants, bioactive glasses and their clinical applications. Apatite-wollastonite (A-W) and phosphate glass ceramics. Dense and porous hydroxyl apatite calcium phosphate ceramics, coatings and resorbable ceramics. Carbon as an implant. CMC composites. Characterization of bio-ceramics. Regulation of medical devices. In-vitro testing (mechanical) of biomaterials: tension, compression, wears, fatigue, corrosion and fracture toughness. In-vivo testing (animals): biological performance of implants. Standards and specifications of implant materials. Recent developments in this area.

GROUP 7: Thesis

THESIS - ( 18 credits )

GROUP 8: Mathematics

Partial Differential Equation: Derivation of one dimensional and two dimensional wave equations and heat equations and their solutions. Solution of boundary value problem by the method of separation of variables. Solution of elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations. Solution of nonlinear PDE. Mong’s method. Solution of PDE by finite difference method. Statistics: Gaussian distribution. Time series analysis. Index numbers, Correlation theory. Multiple and Partial Correlation. Analysis of Variance. Special Function and integral transforms: Green’s function and its applications. Fourier integral theorem and Fourier transforms. Multiple fourier transforms. Fourier transforms of radially symmetric functions. The solutions of integral equations of convolution type. Use of Fourier transforms in solving Laplace’s equation, diffusion equations and wave equations. The double Laplace transform, the iterated Laplace transform, the Hankel transform. The perseval relation for Hankel transform and the relation between Fourier and Hankel transforms. Use of Hankel transforms in solving partial differential equations.